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We have documented extensively with proofs in other places that Sayyid Qutb was "gulping" down the Western materialist (secular atheistic) philosophies for 15 years of his life between 1925 and 1940 (see here); that when he started turning to Islam, this past nurturing affected his ideology and doctrine; that a major influence upon him was Marxist-Socialism; that he considered Islam to be made up in part of Communism (see here and also here); that on the basis of a Communist perspective of "Social Justice" and a [Communist] critique of Capitalism (see here), Sayyid Qutb reviled and attacked Uthmaan, Mu'awiyah, Amr bin al-Aas (radiallaahu anhum) and negated Islam from Bani Umayyah (see this series), continuing to publish his attacks upon Uthman and Bani Umayyah right until his death; that he launched a Socialist revolution in 1952 along with the Free Officers, helping Jamal Abdul-Nasser coming to power as a result, (this revolution being planned in Qutb's own house); that despite being refuted by Shaykh Mahmood Shakir in 1952 for his attacks upon the Companions he persisted upon displaying the Communist-Marxist-Socialist ideologically motivated attacks upon some of the Companions right up until his death (see here, here and here); that Qutb, having already been behind one Leninist type Socialist revolution in 1952, began to pen down the ideology of revolution in the late 1950s, along with the takfiri fikr in the late 1950s and early 1960s in his works az-Zilal and Milestones (a Leninist Manifesto for Muslims) - see this article.
The realities can be arrived at by looking at what Salaah al-Khaalidee has written in his book (من الميلاد إلى الإستشهاد) "From Birth to Martyrdom" a biography of Qutb (pp. 213-215) regarding the period of "wastage" in Qutb's life. Note that this biography is one written in a favorable light and so it is not an adverse source of information. This is a second edition print from 1994CE.
In this entire section spanning forty or so pages Khaalidee discusses the period of doubt and confusion that Qutb went through for 15 years of his life until the 1940s, and in which he (anda his mentor of the time Abbaas al-Aqqaad, poet, writer, philosopher, existentialist) simply "gulped down" (Khaalidee's expression) the materialist philosophies of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Please refer to the complete article here.
Muslim and non-Muslim Commentators on Qutb's Leninism
In the compilation, "Islam and the West, Critical Perspectives on Modernity" (compiled by Michael Thompson), Omer Caha writes (pp. 44-45), in what is an excellent and extremely accurate and astute observation:
Radical and revolutionary Islam, which emerged as reactions to colonialism, were inspired more by socialist values than by liberal democratic values, and they formulated their principles in line with this outlook. It was common in the Islamic world until the 1980s to consider Islam as a source of ideology as well as a revolutionary ideology. It was particularly the Iranian revolution, which became and inspirational reference for Islamic movements at that time. In this period, Islam was taken by Muslim thinkers of Iranian origin as well as by those of North African origin, almost as a kind of state religion, a revolutionary ideology, and a theocratic political structure.
Thought the writer is writing from the perspective of explaining the lack of democracy, or opposition to democracy in the Muslim lands, his analysis of the origins of ideologies based upon the notions of "state" and "revolution" and borrowed from Russian Bolshevism are extremely accurate. This can be seen in the likes of Abu A'la Mawdudi and very clearly in the writings of Sayyid Qutb.
Phil Paine, a writer and independent scholar as he describes himself observes, after reading Milestones for the first time:
... The first thing one notices about Qutb's ideological thought is how little it has to do with traditions of Islam, or the needs of people in Islamic countries. It is profoundly European in inspiration, and it's chief models are Hitler, Marx and Lenin ... Lenin is by far the strongest influence.
It is very interesting to see how individuals that are learned, well-read and well-versed can immediately recognize - after reading just a single book (Milestones) - the true and real origins of Qutb's ideology. The writer also had the knowledge and understanding to recognize Qutb's Asharite leanings. So much for those ignoramus journalists and half-boiled writers linking Qutb to Salafiyyah. As for "Marxist" sources, then Qutb was formerly a communist and some of his communist ideology comes through still in his writings such as advocating the confiscation and redistribution of wealth (that will be dealt with in a separate article). As for "Nazi" sources, then we do not know of any credible evidence at this point in time to suggest he had "Nazi" sources for his ideologies.
Ladan and Roya Boroumand wrote in an article titled "Terror, Islam and Democracy", Journal of Democracy 13.2 (2002) 5-20:
Like Mawdudi and various Western totalitarians, he [Qutb] identified his own society (in his case, contemporary Muslim polities) as among the enemies that a virtuous, ideologically self-conscious, vanguard minority would have to fight by any means necessary, including violent revolution, so that a new and perfectly just society might arise. His ideal society was a classless one where the "selfish individual" of liberal democracies would be banished and the "exploitation of man by man" would be abolished. God alone would govern it through the implementation of Islamic law (shari'a). This was Leninism in Islamist dress.
Contemporary members of the Muslim Brotherhood acknowledge that Qutb was influenced by Leninist revolutionary methodology. Ibrahim al-Houdaiby writes in an article "Four Decades After Sayyid Qutb's Execution" (bold emphasis is ours):
In "Milestones" Qutb presents a manifesto for change, one heavily influenced by Lenin's "What is to be done," with the clear Islamization of its basic notions. He argued that society was suffering from "jahiliyya" (a state of ignorance which preceded the revelation of Islam) and that consequently, there is no room for middle ground between Islamists and their societies.
Paul Berman writes in an article published in the New York Times, 23rd March 2003:
The few had to gather themselves together into what Qutb in "Milestones" called a vanguard - a term that he must have borrowed from Lenin ...
In "Sayyid Qutb: The Father of Al-Qaida", published in the Independent in August 2006, Daniel Martin quotes from Lawrence Wright observing about the book "Milestones":
...Its ringing apocalyptic tone may be compared with Rousseau's "Social Contract" and Lenin's "What Is to Be Done?" - with similar bloody consequences.
Rod Dreher writes in the Dallas Morning News (27th August 2006):
What is to be done? Lenin famously asked about Czarist Russia. Qutb's answer to the same question about the West was, in part, "Milestones," a Leninist-style tract advocating worldwide Islamic revolution.
As we have noted in a previous article that:
The esteemed scholar, Rabee' bin Haadee al-Madkhalee, who has authored numerous works in refutation of the heresies and extremism of the father of all modern takfiri groups, pointed out in 1995 Qutb's exposition of elements of Communist ideology as well as his Leninist revolutionary activities.
Secondly: This tashree (legislation) that Sayyid Qutb ascribes to Islaam (referring here to some aspects of socialism-marxism related to confiscation of wealth from the rich for redistribution amongst the poor that Qutb permitted), he borrowed them from the Communist and Western principles (mabaadi) and theorems (nadhariyyaat) which had become widespread in his lifetime. In fact he himself used to imbibe (such principles and theorems) and they remained settled in his soul and in his intellect at the time when he would write in the name of Islaam. Especially when he mounted the peak of the Nasserite Taaghootee Revolution which in its application, centered around Socialism, based upon the theorem of Sayyid Qutb and his likes, those who had mixed Marxist Socialism with the garment of Islaam, and by which Islaam and the Muslims were pounded.
And in the footnote, the Shaikh adds to this:
And the Free Officers, at the head of them, Jamaal Abd an-Nasser, used to be students, learning from the books of Sayyid Qutb, and he (Qutb) used to partner with them in plotting the revolution. Refer to the book "Sayyid Qutb min al-Meelaad Ilaa Istish.haad" (p.299-304) and before these pages, and also the book "Sayyid Qutb al-Adeeb an-Naaqid" (p.105-107)."
Sayyid Qutb based his ideologies on his own Socialist, Marxist, Leninist background. He had already been involved in one Leninist-style revolution when he along with Nasser and the Free Officers plotted the revolution by which Nasser came into power - though he and Nasser later fell out.
The fact that Sayyid Qutb was heavily influenced by Marxist Socialism and Leninism is being firmly established as more and more academic studies are conducted looking at the evolution of Qutb's writings and ideologies in the background of the changing social, economical and political landscapes in the time that Qutb lived (early to mid 20th century).
As all contemporary takfiri and jihadi groups who promote revolution as a means of reform have inevitably taken their methodologies from Sayyid Qutb, they can rightly be called Leninist-Kharijites or Leninist-Takfiris, as the real and actual intellectual basis of their ideologies and methodologies has been thoroughly exposed. Marxist-Socialism and Leninism. Qutb could not find the revolution he envisaged in the Qur'an, or the Sunnah or from any of the Orthodox Muslim scholars. In fact the above author has shrewdly pointed this out:
When realizing the traditional interpretations of Islam fell short of enabling the deployment of adequate means by which to resolve existing problems, they began to borrow concepts and perspectives from Russian socialism...
So instead, he took it from Lenin, and then tried to quote from historical and prominent scholars such as Ibn Taymiyyah to argue for aspects of his methodology. As we will show in future articles, Qutb's use of Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) to argue for his Leninist methodology is false, as Ibn Taymiyyah is the greatest of people in prohibiting revolution and rebelling against the authorities.
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